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However, the town built to house the miners originally known as Dragerton, more recently as East Carbon City is located in Carbon County. Older strata dating to the. Cambrian period have been penetrated by drill holes. The Coconino formation belongs to the Permian period, dated by geologists at more than million years ago, and was evidently deposited during a dry climate. The Kaibab limestone that sits atop the Coconino and forms wide benches in the eastern and southern parts of the Swell was deposited on the bottom of a warm sea described as extending west from the Gulf of Mexico and covering much of what is now the southwestern United States.

Rocks from the Triassic period about to million years ago are exposed over large parts of the Swell. The Moenkopi formation has three fairly distinct layers, including the Black Dragon member, a blue-gray or yellow-gray siltstone; the Sinbad limestone that forms benches surrounding Sinbad Valley; and an upper member of red-brown or gray siltstone. These formations had their origins in a time when an arm of the Pacific Ocean extended eastward into Utah, leaving deposits of various kinds as it periodically retreated or advanced.

Sometime in the middle of the Triassic period, the Pacific was shifted westward by the rising ground of the Mesocordilleran High in what is now eastern Nevada. The area that is now Emery County then became part of a large interior basin with a climate ranging from semihumid to arid. Under these conditions, the rocks of the Chinle group were deposited, including the Moss Back sandstone that has been the most productive source of uranium ore in the San Rafael Swell, including the deposits at Temple Mountain and Hidden Splendor.

Toward the end of the Triassic period and in the early Jurassic to million years ago , the climate grew more arid, and massive dunes of windblown sand spread across the land. These dunes eventually became the cliff-forming Wingate and Navajo sandstones, separated by the river-deposited Kayenta formation. Wingate cliffs surround the Head of Sinbad. Wingate, Kayenta, and Navajo formations are all apparent in Buckhorn Draw. In the mid- Jurassic period, a sea extended south from Canada into central and eastern Utah. The marine waters deposited immense quantities of salt in a deep trough located under the present Wasatch Plateau and Sanpete and Sevier valleys.

The grotesque sculptures of Goblin Valley are carved from Entrada sandstone. The greenish-gray Curtis formation and the thinbedded Summerville are found along the western and northern edges of the Swell. During the latter part of the Jurassic period, the sea retreated and Emery County was on a wide plain fed by rivers flowing from the west and south. The Brushy Basin and Salt Wash members of the Morrison formation that make a broad band across the western edge of the San Rafael Swell are products of this period.

The abundant fossil record indicates that the landscape included forests of Sequoia and other large trees, and shallow lakes filled with freshwater mollusks. About million years ago, deposits gradually started to accumulate, once again carried by rivers from higher country in what is now western Utah. The Cedar Mountain formation laid down during this period resembles the Morrison so closely that it was not identified as a distinct formation until ,by Cleveland native William Lee Stokes.

The most conspicuous member of the Cedar Mountain formation is the Buckhorn conglomerate that predominates in the area around Buckhorn Reservoir and on the western slopes of Cedar Mountain. The fossil record from the early Cretaceous period has been rather scanty, especially for dinosaurs. Hence the great paleontological significance of the Long Walk Quarry, opened in in the Cedar Mountain formation southeast of Castle Dale. The Sevier Orogeny, or mountain-building episode, dated by.

Seas swept into the region from the east, with the shoreline successively advancing and retreating through Emery County. These conditions persisted for some 60 million years, during which time marine deposits more than a mile deep were laid down over the region. When the sea was shallow, sandy deposits were washed down from the western mountains. When the sea advanced, muddy sediments accumulated, eventually becoming shale. When Emery County was a low-lying coastal plain, great forests and swamps grew in the river deltas.

Advancing waters then buried the organic material under fresh deposits of sand or mud, and the pressure of the growing overburden changed the organic deposits to coal. This entire series of deposits is known as the Mancos shale group. Its oldest member, the Tununk shale, forms the hills and flats east of Desert Lake and in the valley where the Castle Dale-Buckhorn road crosses Huntington Creek. Next comes the Ferron sandstone that caps Molen Reef and contains the coal fields southeast of Emery.

The Blue Gate shale is the notorious "blue clay" of Castle Valley. It continues around the base of the Tavaputs Plateau to Green River and beyond. The lower cliffs in the Wasatch Plateau escarpment are made up of Emery sandstone. The thick talus slope between the Emery and Star Point sandstones is Masuk shale. The Star Point sandstone can be traced as a distinct cliff line all along the Wasatch Plateau.

It became an important marker for economic geologists because it was early recognized that the lower part of the Black Hawk formation above the Star Point was the most likely place to find commercially valuable seams of coal. Above the Black Hawk is the cliffmaking Price River formation, whose most conspicuous member is the Castle Gate sandstone. The Book Cliffs are composed of the Price River and adjacent formations. Near the beginning of the Tertiary period, some 65 million years ago, the San Rafael Swell was uplifted as part of a more extensive mountain-building episode known as the Laramide Orogeny.

The area that is now the Wasatch Plateau was then a basin between higher regions to the east and west. This basin was filled by a long, relatively. Rivers draining into the lake deposited the sediments that became the North Horn formation that covers most of the Wasatch Plateau today.

The skeletons of mollusks and other animals settled to the lake bottom and became the Flagstaff limestone that caps many high peaks and ridges and forms the massive cliffs of White Mountain, west of Emery. The river-deposited Colton formation is found little if at all on the portion of the Wasatch Plateau in Emery County but appears farther north in Carbon County and forms part of the Roan Cliffs that cap the Tavaputs Plateau.

Later deposits of the Green River formation are also found on the Tavaputs. The disappearance of the early Tertiary lakes was followed by a million-year period of volcanic activity that largely missed Emery County except for some intrusive dikes in the southwestern corner. During this period, the entire Intermountain region rose from near sea level to its present elevation of a mile or more. The greater elevation increased the energy of the streams. The Colorado River captured the Green River which had previously flowed east from Wyoming into the Missouri River drainage and consolidated the drainage of eastern Utah, including the Price, San Rafael, and Muddy rivers.

To the west, the Great Basin subsided, and the Wasatch Plateau was uplifted. What we now recognize as the Emery County landscape was taking shape. The San Rafael Swell acquired its dramatic architecture from the differential erosion of its harder and softer strata. The Green River cut its canyons.

Faulting on the Wasatch Plateau produced the Joe's Valley graben. During the ice ages that ended only some ten thousand years ago, glaciers carved cirques into the higher ridges of the Wasatch Plateau and left moraine deposits on what would later become reservoir sites. Huge mammals roamed the region, including the mastodons whose skeletal remains have been discovered in several locations and the Columbian mammoth unearthed near Huntington Reservoir in , almost unique in its state of preservation and in the high elevation at which it was found.

By the time the. Prehistory Paleo-Indian Culture. Anthropologists use the term Paleo-Indian to designate the period from about 12, to 8, years before the present. Only scattered artifacts from this period have been discovered in the Emery County region, most notably fluted projectile points of a size to suggest that the Paleo-Indian people hunted big game, including mammoths, camels, bison, and giant sloths.

The earliest Paleo-Indian cultural complex clearly identified in Utah is the. Folsom projectile points resemble Clovis points but are somewhat smaller and more finely chipped. As the climate became warmer, however, the game may have retreated to the higher elevations on the Wasatch Plateau. Archaic Culture. As the large ice-age mammals disappeared, the Paleo-Indians were compelled to rely on a wider variety of animal and plant resources. Over the period from about 8, to 7, years before the present, the Paleo-Indian culture in the Colorado Plateau region evolved into the Archaic culture, characterized by sidenotched projectile points and migratory hunting and gathering prac-.

Populations and lifestyles varied in keeping with changing climatic conditions, but Emery County was occupied during all four identified phases of the Archaic era. The Castle Valley phase 6, to 4, years before the present experienced a drought period and a population decline, with an increased dietary reliance on grasses and forbs. Sudden Shelter is among the few sites containing remains from this phase. The Green River phase 4, to 3, years before the present brought a resurgence of hunting, especially for mountain sheep. The final Archaic phase, the Dirty Devil, brought a more sedentary lifestyle and the introduction of the bow and arrow and of corn.

The period from about 1, to 1, years before the present A. Emery County was an important center for the Fremont culture and home to what is known as the San Rafael variant. Judging from archaeological sites, the Fremont people were probably most numerous in the region from Ferron Creek to Ivie Creek, but remains of their dwellings and storage structures have been found in Joe's Valley and the lower canyons of the Wasatch Plateau, throughout Castle Valley, the San Rafael Swell, Range Creek, and the Green River canyons. During this period a largely sedentary, agricultural lifestyle developed, though much of the diet still depended on seasonal migration and hunting and gathering practices.

Rabbits, prairie dogs, ground squirrels, and deer provided most of the animal protein in the Fremont diet. The Emery Gray pottery became more decorated, and the Ivie Creek Black-on-White style appeared, as did a larger number of. Anasazi trade wares, coursed masonry dwelling and storage structures, and the intriguing clay figurines found at Range Creek and the Ferron area.

The Fremont people evidently practiced ditch irrigation as well as flood irrigation. Remains of irrigation ditches were reportedly found near the mouth of Ferron Canyon when the Anglo settlers first arrived. Excavations at several sites, including Innocents Ridge, east of Ferron, Old Woman, south of Emery, and three sites near Cedar Creek, north of Huntington, have indicated a pattern of small village sites, typically made up of fewer than a dozen dwellings. Fremont architecture in the Emery County area was "the most varied and elaborate of the five Fremont regions. In general, stone was used more extensively by the San Rafael Fremonts than by other Fremont groups.

Slab-lined storage cists are found only in Emery County. The predominant pottery type is called Emery Gray. In the collection are several unbaked clay figurines recovered from a sealed storage cist three miles east of Ferron. These figurines resemble the Pilling figurines from Range Creek, with appliqued clay facial features and ornaments. The collection also includes a small female figurine of fired clay, remarkable for its detail and its modeling in the round; a figurine carved from red stone, found near Fremont Junction; and three wooden figurines from Ferron Canyon, two of which resemble Hopi Kachina figurines.

There are also several animal-like figurines carved from bone, decorative items, and awls and needles also made from bone; a pipe made from deer antlers; and numerous pottery items and a wide variety of chipped stone points. One of the most intriguing items is a clay disk with radiating wooden spokes, which may resemble the legendary Hopi "water plant," intended to create springs of water.

Rock Art. Emery County is a virtual museum of prehistoric rock art, with many fine examples of both petroglyphs etched into the rock and pictographs drawn or painted on the rock surface. Most of these are thought to be products of the Fremont culture. There was a distinctive San Rafael art style just as there were distinctive architectural styles.

Fremont rock art panels typically incorporate anthropomorphs human-like figures , sometimes wearing what appears to be ceremonial costume; zoomorphs animal-likefigures , most commonly what appear to be representations of sheep and snakes; and abstract figures, including circles, concentric circles, rainbow arcs, and wavy lines. Sometimes the anthropomorphs are depicted with exaggerated genitalia, suggesting that they might be fertility icons.

Occasionally a humped-back flute player appears, resembling the Kokopeli figure of the Hopi. Compared with the Fremont rock art of the Uinta Basin, the San Rafael style tends to have more crowded panels with numerous small figures, anthropomorphs that are smaller and less elaborately decorated-sometimes merely stick figures-and a higher proportion of abstract elements. Another style of rock art found in Emery County is the Barrier. Restored Buckhorn Draw Pictograph Panel. Courtesy Reed E. Martin Canyon style, thought by some scholars to predate the Fremont era.

This style takes its name from the Great Gallery in Barrier or Horseshoe Canyon, an immense panel located in Wayne County a short distance south of the Emery County border. This style is characterized by highly abstract, elongated anthropomorphs, sometimes heroic in size, with small extremities or none at all, sometimes wearing headdresses, and often with large staring eyes producing a ghostlike effect.

Zoomorphs are also highly abstract. In addition to the better known panels, there are dozens of Fremont and Barrier Canyon sites known only to a few stockmen and rock hounds. Lee M. The Ute people were composed of several fairly distinct bands that occupied homelands. Although the bands sometimes raided one another, they shared a common language and culture, and trade and ceremonial interchange were carried on from band to band.

Maps of Ute homelands do not locate any particular band in what is now Emery County. Yet the accounts of early travelers indicate that there were Utes in the area. The San Pitch band, headquartered in the Sanpete and Sevier valleys, probably also made extensive use of western Emery County, as they continued to do on a seasonal basis well into the settlement era. Early explorers found established trails across the Wasatch Plateau, including trails through Rock Canyon and Convulsion Canyon that provided routes between Castle Valley and the high country without the impediment of the stream meanders in the larger canyons.

The Green River Valley, with its riverine plant life and access to the hunting grounds on the Tavaputs Plateau, was a permanent or semipermanent dwelling site, perhaps for members of the Sheberetch band that also occupied the Dirty Devil region and the area at the base of the LaSal Mountains. It is likely that the Green River crossing was also used in the commerce between the large Tumpanawach band of Utah Valley and the Utes of western Colorado.

Stokes and Cohenour, Geological Atlas of Utah, This valley appears on some maps as Gunnison Valley. However, there are several other Gunnison valleys in Utah and Colorado. To avoid possible confusion, and in deference to local usage, the designation Green River Valley will be used in this book.

Stokes, Geology of Utah, 98, DeCourten, "Long Walk Quarry," Stokes, Geology of Utah, , 1, , , George W. James H. Alan R. Madsen, "Fremont Sites," Gunnerson, "Fremont Culture," Joseph C. Winter and Henry G. Gunnerson, "Unusual Artifacts," Castleton, Petroglyphs and Pictographs, , The earliest recorded entry into what is now Utah was the exploring expedition of Juan Maria Antonio Rivera in Rivera, however, proceeded no farther than Spanish Valley the present site of Moab.

The Dominguez-Escalante expedition in bypassed the Emery County region. It is likely that an active trade was carried on between the Spanish settlements in New Mexico and the Utes of central Utah after and perhaps even before the Dominguez-Escalante visit. Since Rivera had charted a route as far as the Colorado River, it is also likely that the Green River crossing became part of this trade route as it was more direct than the Dominguez-Escalante route. No detailed account of their route has been found, so it is not clear whether they came by way of the Green River crossing.

They encountered hostility from the Indians on the Sevier River but escaped to Spanish Valley where Chief Guasache Wasatch was waiting to trade with them, "as was his cus-. The most direct route from the Sevier to Spanish Valley would probably have taken the Arze-Garcia party through what is now Emery County. However, the story is considered spurious by some historians of the fur trade. In any event, there is no independent evidence for the episode or for Santa Fe to Los Angeles trade as early as The earliest authenticated literary record of an Anglo-American visitor to the Emery County region occurs in the account of Jedediah S.

Smith's southwestern expedition of This expedition, the first recorded overland journey to California by an American, has long been regarded as one of the most important exploring journeys in the West, but it was assumed that Smith had followed the general route of the Dominguez-Escalante expedition from Utah Lake to the Sevier River. However, in a detailed narrative of the expedition was discovered in St.

Louis, prepared from Smith's notes by his scribe Samuel Parkman. This account indicates that the Smith party did not proceed directly to the Sevier from Utah Valley. Instead they went into the mountains, probably by way of Spanish Fork Canyon, and reached the Colorado River drainage. The account, containing the first written description of what is now Emery County, reads: I then moved on South having a high range of mountains on the West and crossing a good many small streams running east into a large valley the valley of the Colorado.

But having learned that the valley was verry barren and Rocky I did not venture into it. The country is here extremely rough little appearance of Indians and game quite scarce a few Mt. Sheep and Antelope. It is not possible from this brief account to identify Smith's exact route. The statement that he traveled south with "a high range of mountains on the West" suggests that he passed through Castle Valley.

If so, the "low place in the Mountain" might well have been Rock Canyon with its established Ute trail. On the other hand, the statement that he "did not venture into" the large valley could mean that the Smith party traveled south through the graben valleys of the Wasatch Plateau. The report of "crossing a good many small streams" fits well with this route, though the scarcity of game does not.

In any case, Smith's description of Castle Valley as "barren" and "unpromising" strikes a note that would be repeated again and again by other early travelers. Other trappers probably entered the Emery County region by way of the Green River. The mountain men knew the upper Green very well, and trading posts were established in the Uinta Basin as early as the s. Evidence of their presence on the lower stretches of the river is somewhat sketchy, mainly consisting of the name "D.

Julien" and the date written on the canyon walls. T h e Spanish Trail. The main travel route through the Emery County region during the first half of the nineteenth century was the Spanish Trail, which has been called "the longest, crookedest, most arduous pack mule route in the history of America. While the route was fairly definite at key points such as the Green River crossing and in narrow passes, in more open country it was highly variable.

This was especially true when large herds of horses and mules were being driven to New Mexico, requiring feed along the way. From the Green River crossing, the trail went west to a camp at what was known as Green River Spring. The route through Cottonwood Wash later adopted by the unfinished Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad grade and later still used as the corridor for a high-voltage electrical transmission line approximates the course of least resistance that was most likely followed by caravans on the Spanish Trail. Near the summit, the trail divided with one branch going to Fish Lake and on through Grass Valley and the other crossing the northwest shoulder of the Fish Lake Plateau and entering Sevier Valley near the present site of Sigurd.

The first recorded journey over the entire Spanish Trail began in September , when a party of trappers led by William Wolfskill set out for California from Taos, New Mexico. Except for Wolfskill's ledger, the surviving accounts of this expedition were all written several years after the event. The most detailed narrative is that of George C. Yount, dictated to an Episcopal clergyman named Orange Clark sometime around The reference to St. Joseph's Valley as an established name suggests that there must have been travel on the Spanish Trail before the Wolfskill expedition.

The characterization of Castle Valley as "the. For the next two decades, the Spanish Trail was an important commercial route, with one major caravan each year travelling from "the land of sheep" to "the land of horses" and back. These consist of men on horseback, accompanied by mules laden with fabrics and large woolen covers called serapes, jerzas, and cobertones, which are valued at 3 to 5 piasters each. This merchandise is exchanged for horses and mules, on a basis, usually, of two blankets for one animal. This trip consumes two and one-half months. By the s there were herds of stolen animals in addition to the official caravans, as the Utes under Chief Wakara and mountain men such as Pegleg Smith discovered that raiding was more profitable than trading.

California mules, larger and stronger than those bred in the States, commanded high prices on the Santa Fe Trail. Kit Carson, The last major caravan traveled the Spanish Trail during and Not long after its departure from Los Angeles in April , a small party led by frontier scout Kit Carson also set out from California carrying government dispatches for delivery to Washington, D. In Carson's party was a young army lieutenant named George D. Brewerton, who later published an account of the journey.

Brewerton reported catching large numbers of trout in the streams feeding the lake, indicating that they probably. Brewerton gave no details about travel through Castle Valley, but he did describe the party's difficult crossing of the Green River on 3 June. In his account he calls it the Grand River, but it must have been the Green as it was the first of the two major rivers they crossed. The gold rush that ensued over the next several years marked the end of the Emery County portion of the Spanish Trail as a major route to California as more direct routes were developed through Arizona and along the Humboldt River in Nevada.

Some travelers, however, continued to follow the Spanish Trail, and indeed the most detailed descriptions of the trail through Emery County date from the years following its decline as an important trade route. Orville C. Pratt' Pratt left Santa Fe for a War Department assignment in California on 27 August , supplied with an escort of sixteen men and a route log compiled by a mountain man named B. Pratt described the Green River, which he reached on 18 September, as "a large mountain stream, full yards wide, but not so rapid as the 'Grand. The men fared somewhat better, catching "mountain trout weighing at least 6 pounds!

They resemble greatly the celebrated 'Mackinaw trout' in looks but are nothing so good. The party crossed the river on 19 September. They lost the trail and were forced to camp that night without water. On the 20th they retraced their path until they found the trail, nooned at Green River Spring, and camped that night near a pothole, probably in the Big Holes area. On 21 September Pratt reported, "Made a fine march today of 30 m.

Pratt's party traveled to "Garambuya" Ferron creek on 22 September and the following day continued on through rain and hail to the "Rio Del Puerto," or River of the Pass probably Ivie Creek. On the 24th they crossed Wasatch Pass, meeting "four Eute Indians" to whom they traded a rifle for "a fine horse. Evidently they did not find Indians at the Green River crossing-though it is likely that Ute horses were the reason for the scarcity of grass there.

Choteau's trail log said of the Green River crossing, "There may be some Eutes here. E Beale, A twelve-man party under the direction of E. Beale was on his way to California to take up an appointment as Indian superintendent. In the party was Gwinn Harris Heap, who the following year published a book about the journey, Central Route to the Pacific, from the Valley of the Mississippi to California. Heap gave a more detailed description of the Emery County landscape than any previous traveler.

The party reached the Green River on 25 July. Heap wrote, "The scenery on its banks was grand and solemn. The bullhides were full of holes, having been used to cross several other rivers, and required patching with India-rubber blankets. When the crossing was completed, Beale made a present of the boat to a party of twenty-five mounted Utes who met them on the west bank and who promptly tore it apart for moccasin leather.

They camped "in. The following morning, the Utes, w h o h a d seemed friendly the night before, showed a disposition to be insolent, but our party kept close together, and they did not dare to commence hostilities. Most of them had rifles, and all had bows and quivers full of arrows with obsidian heads. They accompanied us for some miles, importuning us for presents, and finally left us in a bad humor. This was the period of the "Walker War" , which perhaps accounts for the Utes' "insolence.

Heap describes the water as "cool, b u t n o t abundant; it is, however, constant, and good grass and some cottonwoods and willows are found around it. At our encampment, the creek was seven yards in breadth and eighteen inches deep. The water was cool and sweet, and good pasturage on its banks. O n 28 July Heap reported, Traveled twenty miles south by west, and halted at noon on the Rio del Moro Castle Creek, so called on account of the buttes near it resembling fortifications.

In ten miles from the San Rafael, crossed a broad brook of clear and cool water, running into Green River. Between the streams vegetation was scanty and stunted, and the soil clayey, dry, and barren; to the westward were steep hills, beyond which could be seen the green and wooded slopes of the Wahsatch range. The "broad brook" ten miles from Cottonwood Creek would have been Ferron Creek. That would make the "Rio del Moro" Muddy Creek. Heap remarked upon the architectural forms into which the Mancos shale had been sculpted near the mouth of Muddy Creek Canyon: At times, long lines of battlements presented themselves; at others, immense Gothic cathedrals, with all their quaint pinnacles and turrets, which reminded us of the ruined castles and churches that we had seen in our travels in the old world.

The different colors of the clay added to the singularity of the scenery, and strengthened the resemblance. Along this stretch of the trail, the party crossed cattle tracks going north. Heap surmised that these were livestock stolen by the Utes from the Mormon settlements in Sanpete Valley. Gunnison, A few weeks after the Beale party, another expedition passed through Emery County, this time with the official charge to explore a route for a proposed transcontinental railroad.

While other parties were assigned to explore northern and southern routes, Captain John W. Gunnison of the Topographic Engineers was given responsibility for the central route along the 38th and 39th parallels. The Gunnison expedition was the first on record to bring wagons through Emery County, thereby changing a trail into some semblance of a road. Gunnison did not long survive his journey through Emery County. Together with seven of his men, he was killed by Pahvant Indians on the lower Sevier River on 26 October. The report of the expedition was completed by Gunnison's assistant, Lieutenant E.

Beckwith reported that the party reached the Green River on 30 September. The river is yards wide, with a. They are the merriest of their race I have ever seen, except the Yumas-constantly laughing and talking, and appearing grateful for the trifling presents they received. A wrinkled, hard-faced old savage, with whom I shared my luncheon of bread and bacon, quite laughed aloud with joy at his good fortune.

They confirmed the report we had before heard of a war between the Mormons and Wah-ka-ra's Walker's band of Utahs, and his absence in New Mexico to dispose of a herd of cattle which he had stolen from them. Oddly enough, Beckwith greatly underestimated the magnitude of the plateau that now bears his name, describing it as "but a few hundred feet high.

As we approached the river yesterday, the ridges on either side of its banks to the west appeared broken into a thousand forms-columns, shafts, temples, buildings, and ruined cities could be seen, or imagined, from the high points along our route. On 7 October, probably a few miles east of Wellington, they turned southwest and passed through the area where Victor and Desert Lake were later established. He wrote, There is not a tree at the point where we crossed this stream; a narrow bottom is covered with dry grass and willow bushes, intermixed with the buffalo berry bush thickly covered with fruit.

Two miles and a half from the San Rafael we came upon a branch of that river of half its size, with dry grass covering bottomlands a half. On some such spaces today we counted from fourteen to twenty parallel trails, of the ordinary size of Indian trails or horse-paths, on a way barely fifty feet in width.

Specimens of coal were brought in from the hills near camp, but were inferior in quality. Their camp at this time was on "Big Rock Creek" presumably Muddy Creek , so the coal probably came from outcrops in the Ferron sandstone of the Molen Reef. On 12 October the party continued through a "broken valley" and across two small creeks to a camp at Oak Spring. Here their Indian guide "told us that a circle in red, high up on a sheltered rock on the face of one of the hills, where some rude human figures are seen, also sketched in red lines, was called Akanaquint.

The country is very rocky sandstone, broken, upheaved, and intersected in every direction by ravines, chasms, and beds of creeks. A little bunch grass is scattered over the hills, but they are generally barren or covered, as on the margins of the streams, with sage. The summit of the Wahsatch mountains is a finely-grassed region but entirely unfit for cultivation. It is not too much, therefore, to say, that, unless this interior country possesses undiscovered mineral wealth of great value, it can contribute but the merest trifle towards the maintenance of a railroad through it, after it shall have been constructed.

It is interesting to compare the various descriptions of the streams flowing through Castle Valley. The measured annual flow of Huntington Creek is in fact somewhat smaller than that of the other two streams. However, Beckwith made his observations in the fall, when presumably all mountain snowpack was exhausted and the streams were fed entirely by springflow.

Probably a larger share of Huntington Creek water comes from perennial springs, and therefore it would be a larger stream in the late season, while the Price and Cottonwood would be larger during the snowmelt season. Heap, traveling in July, did not explicitly compare the flow of the Huntington and Cottonwood creeks, but his account suggests that he found the Cottonwood a more impressive stream. His description of it as "seven yards in breadth and eighteen inches deep" would still be reasonably accurate for late July in an average year, if there were no storage impoundments.

This suggests that precipitation and streamflow have neither increased nor decreased significantly over the last century and a half, contrary to claims sometimes heard that the region used to be wetter than it is today. John C. Fre'mont, John Charles Frkmont, who had cultivated a reputation as the western "pathfinder," had hoped to be chosen to lead the central railroad survey. When Gunnison was appointed instead, Frkmont, with the support of his influential father-in-law, Senator Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri, organized a private expedition for the same purpose.

He started later than Gunnison, partly because of illness but in part because he was determined to prove by a winter crossing that the central route was usable in all seasons. This determination, combined with inadequate preparations and an unusually severe winter, brought the expedition to the brink of disaster. The most detailed report of the Frkmont expedition is a retrospective account published in by Solomon Nunes Carvalho, the party's artist and daguerreotypist. One of Frkmont's goals was apparently to seek a more direct route across Utah than that provided by.

A map published with Frkmont's memoirs in indicates that the expedition crossed the Green River near the mouth of the San Rafael, twentysome miles south of the Spanish Trail crossing. On their arrival at the river, the party saw "several Indians" watching them from "high sand bluffs" on the west bank. He crashed, ran, then killed himself. And his vehicle had a passenger! And May will be Municipal Clerk's Week. In Clovis, on April 25, a dog bit a child. Then, someone spent counterfeit money.

Then, another dog, child. Then, another counterfeit bill. With signs—cheering—kids and teachers in Artesia welcomed second-grader Mateo Morillon back to school after a successful cancer treatment. Four young teenagers took a car, left with its keys in, for a twenty-minute joyride, but Albuquerque police had left it that way as a trick.

Apr 25, PM. The volcanoes west of Albuquerque last erupted 70, years ago. Today, a small plane crash-landed northwest of them, hurting a man's elbow. Apr 26, AM. In Sunland Park, in the only U. Spaceport America is almost ready for Virgin Galactic to move into its hangars, although it still needs a longer runway—2, feet longer.

Oliver Etsitty, 62, of Bluewater: arrested for beating his eight-year-old grandson on the head with a hairbrush. A school nurse saw a lump. A suicidal woman, 33, waving a gun. A deputy firing at her, but missing. A tazing. Navajo Nation officials says tourism to their reservation—spanning parts of NM, AZ, and UT, is increasing—and they say word-of-mouth is why. Governor Martinez visited a school in Los Lunas to read to kindergartners, and to talk with third-graders about the importance of reading.

Rachel Rodriguez, waitressing at a Carlsbad Denny's: shot to death on April 5 by a customer who then shot himself. The crime appears random. Rachel Rodriguez, shot waitressing in Carlsbad, was a single mother of three. Until May 15, every Denny's in NM is collecting donations. Kenneth Gonzales, former supervisor of the Farmington Adult Probation and Parole Office, will plead guilty to receiving child pornography. Arrested for drunkenness in Santa Fe, Miguel Lujan smashed a cop-car window with his head and escaped.

Caught again, he spat blood at them. Apr 26, PM. In Las Cruces, you will have to pay your red-light-camera traffic tickets or have your utilities shut off. The city thinks it can do that. Southern New Mexico has been swallowed up by a haze of blowing dust and high winds. Everywhere down there, roads are being closed. Sunland Park's new mayor—a year-old student and ex-jeweler chosen after a scandalous series of others—may have been illegally appointed. Eric Kilmer, a hot dog vendor in downtown Albuquerque, rammed his cart into Vincent Montoya, a vending rival—running over his feet and legs.

Eight days before Martin Martinez of Chamita was arrested for shooting his daughter's violent ex-, his other daughter, 17, died in a crash. Moriarty Municipal Airport may get a second runway. Last year, wind didn't allow planes to take off or land at all from April through May. A young bear shambled into a Las Vegas neighborhood, climbed a tree, and became a photo op. Then it ran toward a school. So it was killed. April 25, in Portales, people were, respectively, blocked by a cow—chased by a dog—bitten by a cat—seen to limp from an alley, whimpering.

Leoni Jansen, daughter of one such POW, just visited. Voters shut down Albuquerque's red-light cameras, but the city has hired Redflex Traffic Systems to "go after" those who still owe it money. Apr 27, AM. To promote a local recycling center, students in the Raton High School Drama Club visited area schools to perform in a skit about recycling. Despite having lost an eye and most of her vision to a bizarre electrocution, Jeanne Hurt, 65, of Rio Rancho, has become a champion quilter.

The wind blew hot, the sky swirled with dust, and the wildgrass southwest of Capitan caught fire. Flames in the grass. People at the flames. He called them prep. He's suing. Anthony Pacheco, an Albuquerque firefighter, was arrested as a suspected member of a burglary ring. Stolen TVs were found inside his home. Last night in Albuquerque and the mountains to the east, the wind downed power lines and left more than 7, people without electricity.

Los Alamos's multibillion-dollar plutonium-research facility will see its funding cut, though U. Bernalillo Co. Kari Brandenburg doesn't think any of the last eight years' APD shootings were criminal—so there will be no grand jury. Apr 27, PM. His death appears to be a suicide. Rampaging casually through Sierra County, Norovirus leaves in its wake person after person suffering cramps, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.

A car-chase through Santa Fe, a stand-off in a medical office, the arrival of SWAT, and the arrest of the nightshirted speed-camera shooter. He shot and killed a man, in Taos, in a busy Albertson's parking lot, and now Ken Vargas, 47, is being indicted for first-degree murder.

Burning, urine-soaked newspapers. In northeast Albuquerque, a house on fire. Inside, firefighters found two dogs, neither one breathing. With oxygen, both were revived. Two city blocks in Alamogordo have been evacuated after officers found what might or might not be an explosive device. A Belen woman just learned that her eleven-year-old son has been starved to death by her ex-husband and his wife.

There can be no why. Apr 28, AM. Javier Perea, 24, Mayor of SunlandPark for about a week, has resigned. His appt. But he will run again. Halliburton, among the world's largest oil companies, joined with the Lions Club to donate circus tickets to grade-schoolers in Artesia. When dedicated in , a Methodist church in Loving hid away a time capsule, containing a Bible, in a cornerstone. It's just been opened. Anyone can join.

The influx of army cutworm or miller moths keeps gumming up the telescopes of the high-altitude Apache Point Observatory, near Las Cruces. The explosive device that led to an evacuation in Alamogordo was a stick of dynamite. It and the barriers were removed—and people went home. In Clovis, a man walked up and began arguing with David Garcia, 36, on the back steps of Garcia's home.

Then the man shot Garcia in the leg. Hey, don't worry about that deafening sonic boom this morning, Estancia. It was just a supersonic test missile fired south of Albuquerque. Democrats and Republicans are calling on Bernalillo Co. Commissioner Michael Wiener to resign over photos he's in with Filipino sex-workers. Apr 28, PM. Audio's in from that deputy shoving the Mora County Sheriff: "You don't scare me, you're an idiot! Apr 29, AM. Cimarron Municipal Schools have classes only four days a week, to save money.

But they may go back to five, to improve student performance. On the grass in Doc Stewart Park in Clovis, people gathered for the annual Kite Karnival—flying kites, playing, watching the sky. That Aerodrome is being restored and reopened. George Montoya helped found the Velarde Fire Department. He died on April 18, and he rode to his grave in a coffin on top of a fire engine.

The upcoming Truth or Consequences Fiesta parade will feature a wide range of floats, including one featuring centenarians and the very old. Apr 29, PM. Over the weekend in Tucumcari: a burglary, a burglary, a suspicious man, an unwanted person, a prowler, an unwanted man, an alarm, an alarm. In Hidalgo County, ranch owners complain that Seth Hadley, owner of a square-mile ranch, has been limiting their access to public lands. James D. Mickle Jr. In northeast Albuquerque, Kenneth and Shirley Robson, elderly brother and sister, have been found dead in a trailer park.

Copper is expensive now, and such thefts are common. Fined for reckless driving and improper use of a seat-belt after crashing into a fence, Matthew Pacheco, 45, of Taos, is pleading insanity. She awoke in a man's house, in Arroyo Seco, in a bed, and he grabbed her, slamming her into walls, choking her, screaming he would kill her. Albuquerque police are asking stores not to sell mouthwash and hand sanitizer to drunk people, as people are mixing them together to drink. Santa Fe's Scott R. Powell, 63, allegedly the nightshirt-wearing speed-camera shooter, is a book dealer who sells modern first editions.

Operation Scorpion Sting, an attempt to resolve warrants, brought sixty people hoping for lenience to the Farmington Magistrate Court. Apr 30, AM. On the morning of April 26, just after dawn, another Alamogordo shed burst into flames in a backyard. Soon it was engulfed. Soon it was ash. In other Alamogordo-shed-related news, someone tried to break into a backyard shed, but found its lock too sturdy, its doors too unyielding.

Also: a suicidal man barricaded in his room. And SWAT. She was a cashier at the Walmart in Belen before she died. She worked Register 12, and on Tuesday that register was closed, in her memory. In Milan, a father and son, 80 and 55, drove into a rancher, and then leapt from their truck with an ax handle and brass knuckles, swinging. Apr 30, PM. Despite almost everybody wanting him to quit for posing with sex workers, Bernalillo County Commissioner Michael Wiener will not resign.

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His truck rolled three times, he flew out, and he died. Michael Wiener, Bernalillo County Commissioner from that one photo, has resigned as the Commission's vice chair, but not as Commissioner. To earn some drug money, an Albuquerque man would hire the homeless to steal items from Home Depot and Lowe's and then return them for cash. Las Cruces's mayor on stopping utilities for people with unpaid red-light-camera tickets: "a drastic measure, but these are drastic people.

Near the Clayton Airport, somebody parked a car on a smoldering bonfire. The burned car had been reported stolen, but police say it wasn't. May 01, AM.


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The woman looked as if she'd been dead for a week when ranchers found her in her vehicle in rural Sierra County. She had been living in it. His th was on White Sands Missile Range. January: three men impersonating a drug task force invade an Artesia man's home, looking for meth—they kill him. Now: all three are in jail. Eating everything from acorns to toads to baby deer, feral hogs can now be found in 15 counties, traveling in "sounders," in groups of May it live on in memory as an era in which we dug in safety.

The residents of Lovington lined up for Free Dump Day, a day on which anyone could dump trash for free at the Lovington Convenience Station. When Frank Berged, now 44, was a Las Vegas city councilor, he resigned for forging checks. Now he's defrauded an investor in an oxygen bar. Democracy's not working out so well for SunlandPark. Still no mayor, and now twelve people have been charged—bribery, fraud, extortion. A Tularosa horse has a viral disease, with swelling lesions. The state vet has ordered a quarantine. In other news, there's a state vet.

May 01, PM. A year-old boy in Roswell didn't want to go to school on Monday morning, so he used a pocket knife to stab his stepfather three times. Nighttime, April 29, in Alamogordo, police arrested a homeless woman, Yolanda Lee, She couldn't pay some fines, and they had a warrant.

Nighttime, April 29, in Alamogordo—and despite a felony on his criminal record, Eric Lovato, 28, walked along Washington Avenue with a gun. Nighttime, April 29, in Alamogordo—actually, early April 30, at a. A mountain lion pads through Ruidoso at night. Beside a house, it ate a deer—sat for a photo near another. Many people are eager to kill it. A wide plume of white dust stretching 74 miles.

Nicole Westbrook and her boyfriend just left the state, and sadly, she won't be coming back. She's been murdered, shot down on a sidewalk. May 02, AM. Apparently that whole Separation-of-Church-and-State thing was more of a suggestion. Farmington's just observed the National Day of Prayer. So: 0. A nice home, in Artesia: with a tasteful white-marble Statue of Liberty in the front, manicured hedges, and two cars on fire in the garage.

Bosque Farms village councilors have heard of plans to open a tattoo shop there, and so are discussing how best to delay that indefinitely. With a gun, he strode into a discount store in Carlsbad, demanded cash and a pack of gum, and then ran away. Through a field. Past a ditch.

Monday in Clovis, and a man refusing to get off a train. Sprinklers left on for three days. And a wounded buzzard near some walking trails. To prevent drunk-driving, the Dawg Houze bar in Portales now offers a minivan shuttle to locations in town and to Cannon Air Force Base. In southern New Mexico, the high price of alfalfa is contributing to a rash of hay theft, and to an increase in starving, neglected horses. Beginning next week, says APD Chief Ray Schultz, Albuquerque police will film their every service call with lapel-mounted video cameras.

May 02, PM. A five-year-old boy in Albuquerque is now severely brain-damaged, because of monstrous abuse by his stepfather, Richard Gutierrez. Then they "clean up" all his salable scrap metal. The desert has been so dry, and the wind has yet to let up. The brush around Radium Springs blazed up, and nine acres burned and blackened. Richard Gutierrez, 31, says he was enraged his son, 5, peed his pants and lied about it. That's why he threw him—that's why he's brain-dead. Sirens in Portales—an ambulance for a racing heart; for chest pain; for a daughter having a seizure; for stomach pain; and because of drugs.

She called the police late Tuesday night because she said she could see a man, dressed all in black, behind her house. This was in Portales. He was driving through Santa Fe, in a red Dodge Caliber, when he began coughing, and couldn't stop coughing, and crashed hard into a pole. The house on Hope Farm Road, east of Socorro, had sat unused for a long while. It burned and collapsed and the firemen suspect it was arson. Great Barrington, Massachusetts is the only one better.

With the wind blowing through T or C at 50 m.

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A man, 74, has been found dead in his yard in Santa Fe. His death is being called "gruesome," and a pit bull is being held in connection. Shoplifting at an Albuquerque Target, with a friend and three small children, Nicole Valenzuela used her baby as a shield, to avoid capture.

May 03, AM. New Mexico's horse-racing industry, condemned as the most unsafe in the U. A new study says the state's economy is improving, but only very slowly—and such improvement may end when certain assistance programs do. Sonic booms over Las Cruces—windows rattling—pets in fear—the speed of sound broken repeatedly and allowed to fall into the desert. People in Alamogordo saw Ronnie Chavez, 55, hoist a large dog in the air by its leash—the dog frantic, the man unmerciful, the dog now dead. Indicted: John and Sophia M. Zayas, of Holloman AFB, for torturing and killing their baby. Cigarette burns.

Broken ribs. Skull fractures. It's because unfortunately, there are more people being affected by cancer. Not the news, but just as real, are the stony hills at night with no one on them, the wind through the yuccas, the sounds of birds asleep. A man in a wheelchair rolling backward through Clovis traffic—a toddler walking a dog between cars—a man leaving his truck to beat a woman.

Homeland Security warned state police that a recent Al Qaeda newsletter suggests terrorists ought to start fires in the American Southwest. May 03, PM. Historians and old-timers met in Tucumcari—one recalled his parents' shack on a homestead in the s, his mother's illness, the solitude. May 04, AM. They'd like to start streaming video online as well. Too many cats in Taos. The average number taken in by Taos shelters is four times the rest of America's, though that number is decreasing. Dolby, 30, stabbed P.

Molina, 17, in Veguita, with a knife. I don't know why. Steins, a Hidalgo County ghost town, will soon re-open to tourists.

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It closed last year when its owner was killed—shot—while being robbed. Thirteen years old, walking to catch a bus to school in Silver City, and a man pulled up in a minivan and tried to grab him by the hood. So police have raided a Ruidoso business. And when they prayed, on the Nat'l Day of Prayer: they prayed standing by the Courthouse in Roswell, arms raised, to be seen by reporters. From Dexter, pop. After months of scandal, as many as people are expected to attend tonight's meeting in SunlandPark to select and appoint a new mayor.

A prisoner in Bernalillo Co. Attempts to revive him have failed. May 04, PM. No mention of the Albuquerque overpass's height—or of the semi-trailer's that tried to pass under it—but the trailer was definitely taller. In business for more than 20 years, and an employer of people, frozen-Mexican-food company Proper Foods Inc. More dogs in Portales—a puppy found at a church—a stray—a pack of dogs in the road—a dog by a mailbox, always out—a dog, and it bit someone. That same day in Portales, a dead cat beneath a house; a cache of stolen radios; a yard full of dead fir trees, dry and waiting for a spark.

May 05, AM. Socorro High senior Bryce Sandoval's mom says he never did assault his basketball coach; his dad dad says the coach made the incident up. Martinez would like it if Bernalillo Co. Commisioner Michael Wiener, fresh from a scandal, would leave her out of his re-election ads. May 05, PM. Stahmann Farms, south of Las Cruces, will no longer sell its pecans direct to the public, and it will no longer make its pecan candy. Former APD officer Levi Chavez, accused of shooting his wife and making it look like a suicide, may have to wait a full year for his trial.

The dog, perhaps injured, ran and is still missing. Locks at the Clovis landfill have been cut. Two folding tables were glimpsed out in a roadway. A toddler played unattended on a playground. Grass and a pole on fire, in Clovis—a starving dog—a drunken man, waving a switchblade, accosting passersby for drugs, and for money. They gathered on Lore Street, in Clovis, on Thursday, at night; they gathered to watch pit bulls fight. Somebody saw, and called the police. Isaiah Ithurria, 5, the Albuquerque boy thrown by his "stepfather"—Richard Gutierrez, his mom's boyfriend—has died after a days-long coma.

May 06, AM. May 06, PM. For Flag Day. The Downtown Lions Club donated the flags. Right before Gabriel Martinez got shot by a Valencia County deputy, he was swinging a metal pipe at the cops. Before that, he was running. Something had fallen out from underneath it.

A Northern New Mexico College student called the police to report that someone had broken into his car and stolen his radar detector. But that was only a Taser salesman! A birthday surprise in Farmington, for oil-and-gas-man A. Geren Jr. After admitting to having sex with a year-old girl, Stephen Geisik, 21, of Los Alamos, bonded out to harass another girl, 16, by phone. Since April , Marge Haas has volunteered 2, hours for St. Felix Pantry in Rio Rancho, providing food and clothing to those in need.

Accused of helping manage a prostitution website, former University of New Mexico president F. Chris Garcia wants to see his case dropped. Los Alamos National Laboratory plans to produce actinium It has enough energy to destroy cancer cells and it can be used precisely. New Mexico has more than , oil and gas wells—some active, some abandoned—but fewer than inspectors to make sure they're safe.

Sadder problems in SunlandPark: recently eight children have had to be removed from homes there—due to neglect—from squalid rooms—drug use. Former middle-school teacher Terrance Daniels, 45, of Las Cruces, was accused of stalking a female student in , but has been acquitted. Six car were stolen from in one morning, in Carlsbad. Sometimes, the cars' windows were smashed. Sometimes, the cars were already unlocked. Alamogordo's part of the Earth had rolled away from the Sun and into the Earth's shadow, when a man, 33, tried to leave IHOP without paying.

One day in Portales, a woman lay unconscious; a barn burned; an alarm rang. Next day, a cat lay dead; another alarm shrilled into the dusk. May 07, AM. Meow, the nationally famous pound cat, has died of pulmonary failure in a Santa Fe animal shelter. Last Thursday, he had begun wheezing. Bettina Goering's great-uncle was Hermann Goering. Shanti Elke Bannwart's dad was a Nazi engineer. Both live in Santa Fe; will be in a doc. Using dogs, Alamogordo narcotics agents uncovered a large ball of heroin, and several smaller pieces, in George Nevares' house and vehicles. Here's all anyone seems to know: two people were shot.

One of those two people died. The police were called. This was in Artesia, at night. Four others saw it happen. Then his tongue swelled. Emergency responders flew to the scene in a helicopter. One of the two Artesia shooters, Osmond Viernes, 35, has been arrested. His mug shot shows streaks of blood trailing down his forehead. May 07, PM. In his car beside a Church's Chicken in Albuquerque, Radar Garner unzipped his pants for the year-old girl working the drive-thru window. Thomas Smith asked that Torrance County Commission meetings begin with silence, not a prayer.

Leanne Tapia suggested a prayer, then silence. Elementary school students in Raton put on a puppet show, based on a story written by a former student, Audrey Munden, now in eighth-grade. Really there is no one "New Mexico"—there are as many as there are people—every one unique—shaped by memory, worldview, hopes, and plans. A Rio Rancho girl, 13, didn't come home one day; said a man with a gun kidnapped and raped her and let her go. No DNA matches. No suspects.

Wielding a screwdriver, Kenneth Kaulay, 40, of Tularosa, abducted, attacked, robbed, and raped a woman who'd just left work at McDonald's. The woman had been found in a vacant lot in Ruidoso, in shock. Her car had been left at her work. Her husband had reported her missing. The wells are going dry: 55 families in Chupadero, north of Santa Fe, are running out of water. Tonight, there'll be an emergency meeting.

Scott R. Powell, 62, who allegedly shot a Santa Fe speed-camera, remains in jail. Police have removed guns and nightshirts from his home. Early morning and a garage on fire in northeast Albuquerque—a homeowner's attempt to put it out herself and smoke-inhalation and a hospital. Wanted to meet, but firefighters. High winds throughout Albuquerque: piling clouds atop the granite Sandias, slamming every opened door, throwing a tree into a power-line.

May 08, AM. America remains in mourning for Meow, once its fattest cat. He loved to be brushed. He also enjoyed tuna. Stopped in traffic, George Rader, 34, of Alamogordo, was arrested for possessing a firearm. So was Christina Orr, 18, sitting next to him. For 79 years, she was either sleeping or awake, happy or unhappy, with others or alone. Officers found her dead in her home in Alamogordo. In a cell of the state pen. Guard Louie Nieto distracted him—and fought off an attack. No water—no food—so the skunks wander to town. One with rabies just bit two dogs southeast of Clovis—Curry County's first rabies since An empty space and an open gate, where an ATV should be.

A lock cut and left on a Clovis street. A horse tangled, stuck, in a tree—later. Set on inspiring , youths, Roy Juarez Jr. A pit bull attacked and killed a little girl, 16 months old, in Las Cruces. A neighbor shot at the dog but wounded the girl's grandmother. May 08, PM. Ultra-marathoner Micah True, who died in March while running in the Gila, died from heart disease—from cardiomyopathy—his autopsy shows. A two-month-old baby has died of pertussis in San Miguel County.

NM's first whooping-cough death in since a fact that comforts no one. Don Gutierrez, arrested more than 30 times, released from prison accidentally, arrested again for breaking into two South Valley homes. Euthanized today was Achilles, pit-bull killer of Clifford Wright, its year-old owner.

The dog's end came at the Santa Fe Animal Shelter. She plans to focus more on using social media. Dusk in Portales—and a man called police to say his son, 19, is not doing well. There will be reception at the Eagleville Hall immediately following the graveside in Eagleville. The Rosary will be February 14, p.

Tierce had called Cedarville home since Tierce and Ola Montgomery Tierce. A memorial service and potluck fellowship will be held Friday, Feb. Burial at a later date. February 4, in Fall River Mills. Jacob will be buried at the Alturas Cemetery and will remain in our hearts forever.

Fields was born in North Carolina on May 22, At his request, no services will be held. Arrangements have been entrusted to Kerr Mortuary, Alturas. He was greatly admired and loved, and will be deeply missed. A memorial service will be held on Friday, February 18, , a. Main Street, Alturas. Interment will be a private only inurnment.

If we had just won one more match in the day, we would have won it all. It was that close. Overall, I was very pleased with the team. They really stepped up. Wood believes Durham, Willows, Trinity and Modoc will be in the mix. Modoc placed 10 wrestlers in the 14 final matches at the SCL. Last year, the teams combined for a miserable season. If the current seedings stand, both teams will have to travel in the first round. Modoc started with a lead in the first, but the wheels fell off after that. Weed took a lead at halftime and after three.

They topped the Braves in the fourth. Brett Boudreaux led the scoring with Modoc beat Fall River Tuesday night , thanks in part to a solid first half lead of Modoc led after three. Boudreaux had 19, Kristopher Traylor had 16 and Jonathan Jones added Rochelle Keller led with 15 points and Monica Eppler added The girls lost to Fall River Tuesday The Bulldogs held a lead at halftime and Modoc fought back to lead after three.

Fall River won the fourth for the win. Courtney Knoch led with 13 points and Jodi Boudreaux added The junior varsity boys beat Weed Friday. Modoc led in the first and by half. The JVs led in the third. The Braves got up in the first and led at half. A big third period put them up Anderson led the scoring with 14, Larranaga added 12, and Alex Torres had Jordan Marquardt led with eight points. The girls rebounded Tuesday by beating Fall River The game was close the whole way, with the Braves leading at halftime.

Marquardt led with 16 points. Modoc rounds out the regular season with a home game against Burney Feb. The playoffs start Feb. The case sat idle for years as little, if any, real investigation had been done by former Sheriffs. He did not arraign Cantrell because he had represented him in the past. On Wednesday morning, Cantrell entered a not guilty plea before Judge Fritz Barclay and Barclay released him on his own recognizance.

Brown was transported by ambulance to Merle West Hospital in Klamath Falls, Oregon where he was pronounced dead at p. Duncan learned of the case approximately four years ago from former Sheriff Mark Gentry. Duncan was advised at that time that the case would be looked into. Last week it was learned that in the fall of nearly wild horses lived in the Carter Reservoir herd management area.

Today according to the latest official figures posted by BLM there are six horses left. Riders looking for the Carter herd rode the range for ten hours in late Spring of specifically looking for the wild horses. They found seven horses, six adults and one foal. Unofficial counts report that there may be more wild horses, but no proof has been offered. The questions then arise, if there are more horses, are these wild horses from the Carter herd? Did they move in from neighboring herd management areas?

Enforce the agreed upon rules with the cattlemen, evaluate the true costs of managing the wild horses, evaluate the actual expense of managing the cattle, create a wild horse sanctuary to increase tourism and educate the public, hire locals to check the herds and do range repairs, implement horse training clinics, promote tourism on the Carter Res. Herd management area as one of the few places in the west where you can see wild horses in their natural habitat, develop agri-tourism, the list goes on and on. Curt Rose is in the process of talking to several different entities concerning partnership and progress of his Surprise Valley Geothermal, LLC project.

Rose hopes to give some talks to the community explaining the project, the geothermal resource in the valley and its potential for energy development. Rose is optimistic and encouraged by the Modoc County Board of Supervisors giving their blessing to the project. Rose and his family developed the Surprise Valley Hot Springs Resort, which is heated by geothermal energy and offers elegant lodging, massages and hot tub soaking.

Box , Likely, CA Kesner was 90 years of age. He was born in Lake City, CA. June 8, to Harry J. Toney and Josephine I. Quirk Toney. A fellowship potluck will be held following the services. Burial will be at Lake City Cemetery. At her request, no service will be held. George Jessen Hollesen, a native of Clovis, passed away peacefully surrounded by his family on January 15, According to coach Keith Weber a poor shooting night against Burney at home Friday resulted in a loss.

Shasta Cascade League rules dictate that to be eligible for the postseason, a team must finish with at least a. Modoc is in league and overall with one regular season game remaining. The Braves got off to an start against Burney, but trailed by halftime. They tied the score at after three, but the Raiders outscored them in the fourth. Brett Boudreaux led with 12 points and Brandon Bains added The Braves jumped out to a lead in the first and led by half. Modoc and Etna are now at Fall River is atop the league and Mt.

Shasta sits at Modoc got up in the first and by halftime. At the end of three, the Braves led The junior varsity girls also had a good night, beating Burney after spotting Burney an first period lead. The Braves led at halftime and after three. Jordan Marquardt led with 21 points and Kelsey Clay added eight. Boys varsity: Weed Mt. Shasta Burney Weed Modoc County Supervisors on Tuesday opted not to go from three to two meetings per month, even though they had voted to do just that on February 8.

The original vote was a part of a Rule of Procedures document that had initially been approved. One of the main reasons for the change was that one of the three meetings per month in the past was dedicated to Modoc Medical Center business. Since MMC is no longer under the county, that meeting is unnecessary. However on Tuesday, the board opted to stay with the three meeting schedule. The meetings will be held on the first, second and fourth Tuesdays of each month.

They did agree to go to a winter schedule of a 10 a. During Daylight saving Time, the meetings will go back to 9 a. The Board also held Chief Administrative Officer applicant interviews Tuesday afternoon, following a very confusing morning session concerning appointment of a proposed citizens committee to assist with the interviews. Unofficial reports indicated the Board was interviewing two of 15 applicants.

Following closed session interviews on Tuesday, no decision was made on the hiring of a new CAO. It is not clear, at this point, whether the Board will choose to hire a new CAO at that time.

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Some of that money came from restricted fund departments. The public hearing started somewhat raucous, with the public in attendance mostly against the proposal. It even degenerated into threats against at least one government official. That hearing has not yet been scheduled. On Tuesday, the Modoc Board of Supervisors held the first reading of a management structure ordinance, that defines and codifies certain job responsibilities. The Board was interviewing candidates on Tuesday for the Chief Administrative Officer position, which is one of those positions whose responsibilities are set out.

The new ordinance appears to give the CAO more authority of employees. Audrey L. She spent 55 years of her life in Modoc. Graveside Services were held on Tuesday, February 22, at 2 p. Memorial donations may be directed to Modoc Senior Citizens, W. Fourth St. He was Barry loved Modoc. In his youth, he hauled hay in Canby. Barry was dearly loved and will be deeply missed. Memorial services will be held at a later date. Van der Eyken was born in Winnepeg, Canada on August 27, Arrangements are under the direction of Kerr Mortuary, Alturas. Lucille was born April 26, Memorial services will be held on Monday, Feb.

Potluck fellowship to follow in the Community Hall. Her funeral will take place at 11 a. Interment will follow at the Fort Bidwell Cemetery. Durham won the event with Willows, second and Trinity third. Chester won the Division IV title. Taking third places went to Benny Bevil at pounds and Collyn Server at heavyweight. Jesse Silva placed fifth at pounds and David Buckley was sixth at pounds. The top four finishers qualified for the Masters and Silva will go as an alternate.

Local Delegate asking others to donate clothes to charity after her donations were stolen

The top two finishers at Master qualify for the state championships. However, he said in the next few years, he anticipates several of his younger wrestler to be in that category. Biggs came in seeded six and Modoc The Braves started well, leading after the first period and were in the game trailing by halftime. But in the third period, Biggs pumped in 18 points and Modoc only two, taking a lead into the fourth quarter. Modoc scored 14 and Biggs 15 in the final period.

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The loss eliminated the Braves from the playoffs. There were no stats reported from the game. Modoc was seeded 12 and Chester five. They had to have a win to move into the North Section Divisions V playoffs. Etna was the worst team in league, with a record and what should have been a cakewalk turned into battle. Modoc finished with a Shasta Cascade League mark. The Braves started well, leading in the first period, but Etna roared back with an 18 point second period to tie the game at Brett Boudreaux led with 20 points and Brandon Bains added Etna took a lead in the first and led at half.

Jordan Marquardt led the scoring with 13 points and Kelsey Clay added six. There is plenty of snow in the high country of Modoc County at the start of March, with more storms predicted. Likely had about 14 inches, while Alturas was covered with about five. Cedar Pass measured 50 inches of snow Feb. In February last year there were Adin Mountain had 41 inches of snow on March 2, containing Last year the site had The area had 83 inches on Feb.

Crowder Flat reported 14 inches of snow on March 2, down from 16 inches on Feb. Methamphetamine use in Modoc County has been a problem for years, and the Modoc Interagency Narcotics Task Force is aiming to make times tougher for users and, more importantly, suppliers. Dowdy said the new level of cooperation between the Task Force and the other local law enforcement agencies is making a difference and more arrests involving methamphetamine have been made since the first of the year than in the past few years. They will also continue their massive effort at marijuana garden eradication on public lands.

Specifically, Dowdy said local dope houses and dealers will get the most attention from the Task Force and local law enforcement. Stopping the supply lines is the most effective way to disrupt the increased use. The Modoc County Board of Supervisors indicated Tuesday that they will revert to two meetings per month, on the second and fourth Tuesdays.

The Board had voted to approve the two meeting schedule on Feb. This week, four of the five Supervisors said they would go back to the schedule of two meetings per month and tabled an item that would have tied them to the three meeting schedule. During the call Abbey outlined some fundamental reforms that will be taking place in how the agency manages their wild horses and burros for the next two years. The U. Bureau of Land Management will reduce the number of wild horses removed from the range from 10,, to 7, per year. This will maintain the current numbers of wild horses at their present levels.

The agency also will expand the use of fertility controls and increase the number of animals adopted by individuals or groups. The BLM proposes to significantly increase the number of mares treated with fertility control — from in to a target of 2, in each of the next two years.

Memorial services were held on Monday, Feb. Potluck fellowship followed in the Community Hall. He was 95 years of age. He was born to Albert and Nellie Townsend on March 28, According to Wood, the Braves drew some of the top wrestlers in the section for their first round opponents. The Masters is double elimination and losing the first round puts a wrestler in an unenviable position. Heavyweight Collyn Server, who was giving up about 50 pounds to his opponents won two of his last three matches, and losing his first round match-up.

Had he won one more match he would have placed. Tyler Kuhn at pounds, Austin Kresge at pounds, Benny Bevil at pounds and Ethan Dunn at pounds drew top North Section opponents and were unable to win a match. Chester started with a first period lead and built that to a halftime lead. Modoc fought back to within three points in the third, and Chester outscored the Braves in the fourth. Brett Boudreaux led the Braves with 17 points and eight rebounds, while Cam Anderson had 11 points and Brandon Bains They finished the season at and will get a lot of help from a junior varsity team that tied for the Shasta Cascade League title.

The wait is almost over for local basketball fans! Games are scheduled to start at p. Modoc will have a Fair for , but it may be trimmed substantially. That was the proposal made Tuesday night following a public forum on the Fair held in Cedarville. About 50 people attended the forum, including the Fair staff and Fair Board, and they came with good suggestions and a positive attitude about keeping the Fair alive. That action will keep the Fair open this year, hoping that alternative funding will be available next year.

In addition, the California Fair Alliance and Western Fairs Association have proposed legislation to fund future fairs. Modoc Fair Manager Dannette DePaul stressed that people need to write letters, call or email the state legislators and Governor to support Fair funding measures. Want More?

Click Here! The population of Modoc County increased to 9, according to the U. Census Bureau, who released the figures Tuesday afternoon. That up from the Census total of 9, The City of Alturas dropped from 2, in the year to 2, for The Modoc County Board of Supervisors Tuesday met in closed session concerning the hiring of a Chief Administrative Officer, but took no action other than to continue the hiring process.

Apparently, the Board will bring the issue back at a future meeting. According to officials, the county received between applications for position. They have not interviewed all of the applicants and screened those down to a few to interview. Memorial services will be held Saturday, March 12 at 2 p.

Ben Zandstra. Barbara was born in Chico, CA on December 29, Interment will be at a later date. Ted L. A reception will follow. He was raised in Fort Bidwell, CA where is parents owned and operated a general store and gas station. Joyce Merrill Robison, 69, of Shelton, Washington passed away peacefully at home in her sleep on February 24, , from complications caused by cancer.

She was born July 5, , in Dallas County, Texas. Joyce was an avid quilter, fantastic interior decorator and a private airplane pilot. Services and a celebration of life for Joyce will be private, at her request. The family is asking that donations to help pay for his funeral expenses and services may be made to a trust account that has been established at Plumas Bank, North Main Street, Alturas, CA. Charles Allen Crist of Vacaville, beloved husband, father, son, grandfather, great grandfather, great great grandfather, brother and friend passed away on February 21, Allen and his twin sister, Elsie Alawayne were born to Charles and Elsie Crist in Hutton, Texas on February 9, A Celebration of life will be A.

Wading practice would have been in order. Harold Montague is the coach. Wendi Lowrey is the head coach. While the transition should be orderly and smooth, there are certainly some issues that will create some heartburn for some Supervisors. That debt has also put the county in a bind, since it does not have the funds readily available to reimburse some restricted fund departments. Approval was tabled at the March 10 meeting and continued to the March 22 meeting. The District is not responsible for making payments to the County to retire that debt. Once the transition is complete, the County will have no ties or management status at the hospital.

Modoc County Planner Kim Hunter received notice March 15 that the pre-application for the Surprise Valley Geothermal project grant is eligible to compete in the final application process. You are encouraged to submit a final application. February was not a good month for building in either Modoc County or the City of Alturas. In fact, it was possibly a record low for building activity. Update: The storm Tuesday and Wednesday added three inches to the snowpack at Cedar Pass, making it 65 inches yesterday morning with More storms are projected throughout the weekend.

Adin Mountain had 41 inches of snow with 15 inches of water March 15, the same depth as on March 3, but above the water content of The average for Adin is Dismal Swamp showed 84 inches of snow March 15 with That compares to March 2 when it had 77 inches Crowder Flat sill has 10 inches of snow containing 4. Surprise Valley ground squirrels are in serious jeopardy this Saturday as hunters invade for the 20th Annual Squirrel Round-up. And that can only mean one thing — the hunters will also arrive soon, ready to do battle before enjoying a social evening hosted by members of the Surprise Valley Chamber of Commerce.

Local fields will serve as the site of everything from casual plinking to high-tech combat as hunters help ranchers thin the ranks of the extremely destructive rodents that ravage their acreage and cause serious injuries to cattle and horses that stumble into their burrows. The Bob Howard family would like to invite everyone who would like to join them in a celebration of the life of Diane Howard. The event will be held at the Brass Rail Restaurant at p. This is to be a joyous occasion, so please check your tears and long faces at the door. Food and stories of Bob are welcome.

Minister Evangelist Bobbi Jean Melbourn will lead the service to comfort friends, family. Tami and daughter Rebecca were former Modoc Estates residents for 15 years. Tammy will not be forgotten. About youth wrestlers from throughout the region invaded the Griswold Gym Saturday for the annual youth wrestling tournament.

Wellemeyer, and T. The Modoc Braves won their opening golf match of the season at Trinity March The Braves won both nine-hole matches, shooting a and Trinity was second shooting , while Weed was third at , Fall River shot , Mt. Shasta and Etna was disqualified. The nasty weather over the past two weeks has slowed down and cancelled softball and baseball games for Modoc High School. Both the softball and baseball fields are pretty much underwater at the moment with no relief in sight.

Softball coach Jodie Larranaga comes into the year with a strong team, expecting the challenge for the Shasta Cascade League title. Two games have already been canceled due to weather this season, but the braves are set to go to Henley Saturday and have home game against Big Valley March Both those games are weather-dependent. Competing against 25 other teams ranging from first through eighth grade, Modoc teams won the sixth-eighth grade overall championship, won the kindergarten-second grade championship and were second in the third-fifth grade championship.

Besides winning the two-team championships, Modoc Middle School runner Anthony James was the overall male winner. Jacklyn Vansickle was the female winner in the girls kindergarten-second division. The problem with the California state budget is coming home to roost for Modoc Medical Center. While times are lean, the City of Alturas remains fiscally sound for the year.

Mayor John Dederick said with 75 percent of the fiscal year done, the budget is on track to end the year balanced. More snow is expected over the next few days in Modoc, which will add to an already heavy pack in the mountains. The key to the latest measurements is the large amount of water in the snowpack. A warm spring, especially a spring rain, could create some flooding issues in this area.

The water content increased by about four inches since last week. Adin Mountain had 50 inches of snow with over 15 inches of water this week. The exact water content was not posted. Dismal Swamp is buried with inches of snow containing an astounding 37 inches of water. Last week it had 84 inches of snow March 15 with Long time Modoc residents are cautiously predicting that water will again be a part of Goose Lake.

It has been nearly dry. Crowder Flat sill has 13 inches of snow containing 5. Unofficial, but reliable sources, state that Medicine Lake now has 10 feet of snow. Memorial services were held Tuesday, March 22 at 2 p. The family made their way to Modoc County, when Opal was about 10 years old. Her father James Drake died in a logging accident when she was young. Condolences may be sent to W. Henderson St. He was born to Ethel A. Services will be held at a. There will be a potluck fellowship to follow at the Likely Fire Hall. The fire was apparently caused by an electrical problem.

Kiser had initially called Pacific Power because of power issues, but when the electric company arrived, smoke was seen coming out from under the eaves. The fire had started in a bedroom. Sixteen firefighters were on scene for about an hour. According to the AFD, there was extensive damage to the bedroom and major smoke damage throughout the home.

There were no injuries. But that may take a turn for the worse at the end of June, unless the County Board of Supervisors-Alturas City Council workshop tonight can come up with some options. That meeting, which is open to the public, is scheduled for 6 p. Neither City nor County officials are wholly optimistic a resolution can be found. He inherited a dispatch center without an approved revenue source. There was a plan offered by former Sheriff Mark Gentry, but it was never formally implemented or agreed to by the entities using the dispatch service.

And therein lies the current problem. Some entities have agreed to share in the cost, while others are reluctant, or not in a financial position, to make the payments. There is still plenty of snow in the high mountains of Modoc, and in most cases well more than average snow and water content in lower areas. Even parched Goose Lake is filling up with water.

The average of that area is Adin Mountain had 57 inches of snow this week. It dipped to 54 inches yesterday. Dismal Swamp got 14 inches of new snow since last week and now has inches containing 41 inches of water.


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On March 28 it showed inches of snow. Crowder Flat still has 14 inches of snow containing 6. He also stresses this may be the last round of funding for the RAC, as no one yet knows whether the Secure Schools Act will be continued. Curtis said there have been agency-generated project proposals for this year, but there remains a need for creative and valuable projects from the private sector that can enhance or improve service in a variety of areas.

He said the number of private sector projects submitted this year is the fewest the RAC has seen. While the private sector projects can be off-forest, they do require a forest buy in. Curtis would be happy to explain or discuss projects with anyone interested in submitting one. The application process will require a two-page concept paper or pre-application. Pre-applications due date has been extended from February 28, to May 2, Minerva C. Box , Cedarville, CA He attended Chico schools, graduating from Chico High School in Margaret grew up in Davis Creek, CA, where she played a vital role in her community for years.

A Memorial Service will be held at 10 a. Effie B. A native of Magazine, Arkansas, she was born on May 28, Memorials may be made to any charity of choice. Condolences may be posted at www. Elvira G. She was born in Ft. Collins, CO and celebrated her 91st birthday on March 6.

Services are pending and will be held at a future date. Porter passed away November 29, in Alturas. Main St. Fred W. He was raised and attended school in Oklahoma and later resided in Merrill, Oregon and then Alturas, California before moving to Challis, Idaho in Graveside services will be held on Tuesday, April 5, at p. They meet Etna at home Friday, with games starting at 2 p. Modoc opened the first game with a first inning lead and led in the second. The Braves led in the fifth and Tulelake scored one run in the sixth.

Brett Boudreaux got the win, pitching three innings, allowing one hit and striking out six. He was relieved by Tyler Hammerness who went four innings, allowing two hits, fanning six and walking three.